“G” is for gluten
To eat or to not eat gluten, that is the question many dieters are asking. But do they know what gluten is?
Gluten is produced when a baker adds water to flour and starts to knead the mixture into dough.
Technically, gluten is produced when two smaller proteins – gliadin and glutenin – bind to each other. As a result, these proteins change their shapes and form these viscoelastic (think the same properties as honey) loops – or gluten.
These two smaller proteins are part of the wheat kernel’s endosperm, part of the stored nourishment for the plant’s embryo (which we call the germ). In turn, that endosperm is the part of the wheat kernel that millers grind into flour. Again, mixed with water, that flour forms gluten.
Gluten plays an important role in baked goods. The protein gives dough elasticity, meaning the dough can stretch and hold a shape without collapsing. For example, bread dough rises as the result of gluten holding the carbon dioxide gas produced by yeast, forming that perfect loaf, much like the rubber in a balloon traps air.
Stronger gluten, or flour with more protein, can hold more gas (more absorbent), in turn giving more structure. This is why a higher protein flour, like hard red winter wheat, makes a better dough for baked goods that need structure, such as a loaf of bread. In contrast, a lower protein flour, like soft white wheat, is better for baked goods that are tenderer, such as a cookie.
As with any component of a recipe, too much or too little can cause problems with your result. Too little, and a baked good will collapse. Too much, and the end result is dry, crumbly or tough. But, with just the right amount, baked goods hold their intended shape while staying chewy and spongy.
Armed with this know-how, quiz family and friends if they are eating gluten!